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Monte Carlo and Quasi Monte Carlo Methods A very good overview and theoretical background on Monte Carlo methods and applications can be found in:

  • M. H. Kalos, P. A. Whitlock, Monte Carlo Methods, John Wiley & Sons, 1986.
  • H. Niederreiter, Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, Springer, 2004.

Global Illumination Books about mathematical frameworks for light transport and solutions for global illuminations:

Essential books for implementing renderers

The human visual system, digital signal processing, and the interaction of matter and light

  • A. S. Glassner, Principles of Digital Image Synthesis, Morgan Kaufmann, 1995.


General repositories

Good starting points for finding (graphics) papers online are:

Papers specifically used in the implementation of Lux

Metropolis Light Transport

Ray/Triangle Intersection, SIMD Optimization and Real-Time Ray Tracing

Acceleration structures

Interesting future Luxrender features that can be implemented

Rendering algorithms

Quasi Monte Carlo rendering, a technique that uses low discrepancy points instead of random points in order to obtain smoother images more rapidly:

Population Monte Carlo:

Energy redistribution:

Variance reduction:


Spatial/temporal acceleration techniques



Possible perceptually based acceleration technique for rendering. How to integrate with metropolis sampling is not clear:


Participating media:


Surface scattering:

  • Bruce Walter, Stephen R. Marschner, Hongsong Li, Kenneth E. Torrance, Microfacet Models for Refraction through Rough Surfaces, EGSR 2007. Has interesting information about a different microfacet geometry masking function G, and two other microfacet distribution functions D.

Advanced optical effects


Fluorescence (would be interesting when using non-incandescent lighting in scenes):

  • A. Wilkie, R. F. Tobler, W. Purgathofer, Combined Rendering of Polarization and Fluorescence Effects, Proceedings of Eurographics Workshop on Rendering 2001.

Intel SSE