LuxRender Texturen - LuxRender Wiki
Luxrender GPL Physically Based Renderer

LuxRender Texturen

Personal tools

From LuxRender Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search

Die Texturunterstützung von LuxRender ist sehr stark und flexibel und unterstützt Bildtexturen und eine große Anzahl an 2D und 3D prozedurale Texturen. Texturen können dazu verwendet werden, um die meisten Materialeigenschaften zu verändern, inklusive Bump und Displacement mapping. Siehe auf der LuxRender_Materialien Seite für Details.

Contents

Bildtexturen

Dateiformate

Die folgenden Formate können als Texturen verwendet werden:

  • BMP (unkomprimiert)
  • EXR
  • JPG
  • PNG
  • HDR (Analyze 7.5)
  • TIF
  • RAW (besteht aus einem sehr simplen Dateikopf (in ASCII) und danach kommen die Bilddaten)
  • ASC (Ascii)
  • INR (Inrimage)
  • PPM/PGM (Portable Pixmap)
  • PAN (Pandore-5)
  • DLM (Matlab ASCII)

Bildtextur-Parameter

Wenn Sie Bilder als Texturen verwenden, egal in welchem Kanal, werden Sie einige Paramter verstellen können:

  • gamma
  • gain
  • filter
Der Effekt von dem gain-Kanal, wenn ein Bild als Diffus-Kanal verwendet wird.


Der Effekt von dem gain-Kanal, wenn ein Bild als Bumpmap verwendet wird.


Der Effekt von dem gamma-Kanal, wenn ein Bild als Diffus-Kanal verwendet wird.


Der Effekt von dem gamma-Kanal, wenn ein Bild als Bumpmap verwendet wird.


Der Effekt von verschiedenen Filtern, wenn ein Bild als Diffus-Kanal verwendet wird.


Der Effekt von verschiedenen Filtern, wenn ein Bild als Bumpmap verwendet wird.


Prozedurale Texturen

Prozedurale Texturen sind Texturen, welche durch mathematische Funktionen bestimmt sind. Was soviel heißt, wie dass der Texturwert (=Farbe) an jedem Punkt berechnet wird und nicht durch ein existierendes Bitmap Bild. Durch kombinieren von verschiedenen prozeduralen Texturen können sehr komplexe Materialien erstellt werden. Ebenso kann durch das Verwenden von prozeduralen Texturen Zeit eingespart werden, weil kein mapping nötig ist.

Durch das Verwenden von den prozeduralen Texturen von LuxRender kann der Nachteil entstehen, dass Ihre 3D-Applikation nicht alle Vorschauen darstellen kann. Viele prozedurale Texturen wurden von der Software Blender übernommen, deshalb funktionieren die prozeduralen Texturen von LuxRender sehr gut in Verbindung mit Blender. Auf jeden Fall können alle prozeduralen Texturen in jedem Exporter zugewiesen werden.

Viele dieser prozeduralen Texturen sind dreidimensional, was bedeutet, dass die Texturen an den Rändern immer zusammenpassen, egal wie ein Objekt aussieht.

Prozedurale Texturen sind nicht gefiltert oder an den Kanten geglättet. Dies ist fast nie ein Problem, da die vorgegebene Dichte meist innerhalb von akzeptablen Limits liegt.

Texturtypen

Blenders Misch-Textur (blender blend)

Blenders Misch-Textur

Verwendung

Diese Textur ist die wichtigste prozedurale Textur. Sie können blend-Texturen dazu verwenden, um andere Texturen miteinander zu überblenden (mit Stencil) oder um spezielle Effekte (vor allem mit dem "Map Input: Nor"-Trick) zu erstellen. Wenn Sie einen Farbverlauf verwenden, um eine eigene Überlbendung zu erstellen, sollten Sie "No RGB" verwenden weil "Map To" einen Intensitätswert braucht.

Parameter
  • lin: ein linearer Verlauf
  • quad: ein quadratischer Verlauf
  • ease: ein fließender, nicht-linearer Verlauf
  • diag: ein diagonaler Verlauf
  • sphere: ein Verlauf mit der Form einer 3-dimensionalen Kugel
  • halo: ein quadratischer Verlauf mit der Form einer 3-dimensionalen Kugel
  • flip XY: die Richtung des Verlaufes ist um ein Viertel verdreht

Blenders Wolken-Textur (blender clouds)

Blenders Wolken-Textur

Verwendung

Wolken, Feuer und Rauch. Genauso geeignet für Bumpmaps, um auf der ganzen Oberfläche eine Irregularität zu bringen.

Parameter
  • default: Standartrauschen, stellt nur Intensität zur Verfügung
  • color: Rauschen stellt einen RGB-Wert zur Verfügung
  • soft noise/hard noise: ändert Kontrast und Schärfe
  • noisesize: die Dimension des Rauschens
  • noisedepth: die Tiefe der Wolkenberechnung - höhere Werte bedeuten eine längere Berechnungszueit, aber auch feinere Details.

blender distorted noise

blender distorted noise texture

use

Often used for: grunge, very complex and versatile materials.

parameters
  • distortion noise: the texture to use to distort another
  • noise basis: the texture to be distorted
  • noise size: the size of the noise generated
  • distortion amount: the amount to which distortion noise affects noise basis

blender magic

blender magic texture

use

This texture could be used for "Thin Film Interference" if you use it on a specular material channel using a relatively high Turbulence.

parameters
  • depth: the depth of the calculation - a higher number results in a long calculation time, but also in finer details
  • turbulence: the strength of the pattern

blender marble

blender marble texture

use

Often used for marble, fire, noise with a structure.

parameters
  • soft/sharp/sharper: three pre-sets, varying from soft to more clearly defined marble
  • soft noise/hard noise: alternative methods for the noise function
  • noisesize: the dimensions of the noise table
  • noisedepth: the depth of the marble calculation - a higher value results in finer details, but longer calculation time
  • turbulence: the turbulence of the sine bands.

blender musgrave

blender musgrave texture

use

Often used for organic materials, although the texture is so flexible you can do almost anything with it.

parameters

This procedural texture has five noise types on which the resulting pattern can be based, which are:

  • fBm
  • Hetero Terrain
  • Hybrid Multifractal
  • Ridged Multifractal
  • Multifractal

These noise types determine the manner in which the program layers successive copies of the same pattern on top of each other at varying contrasts and scales.

In addition to the five noise types, musgrave has a noise basis setting which determines the algorithm that generates the noise itself. These are the same noise basis options found in the other procedural textures.

The main noise types have four characteristics They are:

  • H (Fractal Dimension) - Range 0 to 2)

Fractal dimension controls the contrast of a layer relative to the previous layer in the texture. The higher the fractal dimension, the higher the contrast between the layers, and thus the more detail will show in the texture.

  • Lacu (Lacuniarity) - Range 0 to 6)

Lacuniarity controls the scaling of each layer of the musgrave texture, meaning that each additional layer will have a scale that is the inverse of the value which shows on the button. i.e. Lacu = 2 -> Scale = 1/2 original

  • Octs (Octave) - Range 0 to 8)

Octave controls the number of times the original noise pattern is overlayed on itself and scaled/contrasted with the fractal dimension and lacuniarity settings.

The Hybrid Multifractal, Ridged Multifractal, and Hetero Terrain types have additional settings:

  • ofst (Fractal Offset)

All three types have a Fractal Offset button labeled Ofst. This serves as a "sea level" adjustment and indicates the base height of the resulting bump map. Bump values below this threshold will be returned as zero.

  • gain

Hybrid Multifractal and Ridged Multifractal both have a gain setting which determines the range of values created by the function. The higher the number, the greater the range. This is a fast way to bring out additional details in a texture where extremes are normally clipped off.

blender noise

blender noise texture

use

This texture can be used for white noise in an animation. It is not well suited for other uses. For material roughness, use the clouds texture instead.

parameters

This texture does not have configurable parameters.

blender stucci

blender stucci texture

use

Stone, asphalt, oranges and also as a bump map to create grainy surfaces.

parameters
  • plastic: the standard stucci texture
  • wall in, wall out: a typical wall stucco effect with holes or bumps
  • soft noise/hard noise: alternative noise types
  • noisesize: the dimension of the noise table
  • turbulence: the depth of the stucci calculations

blender voronoi

blender voronoi texture

use

This can be used to create very convincing metals (especially the hammered effects) and organic shaders (e.g. scales, veins in skin).

parameters

This texture has seven Distance Metric options. These determine the algorithm to find the distance between cells of the texture. The options are:

  • Minkovsky
  • Minkovsky 4
  • Minkovsky 1/2

The Minkovsky setting has a user definable value which determines the exponent (e) of the distance function (x^e + y^e + z^e)^(1/e). A value of one produces the Manhattan distance metric, a value less then one produces stars and higher values produce square cells. So all distance settings are basically the same - variations of Minkowsky.

Different shaped cells in the texture can also be obtained by using the other four settings:

  • Chebychev: irregularly-sized square cells
  • Manhattan: randomly-positioned diamond shaped cells
  • Actual Distance/Distance Squared: irregularly-shaped rounded cells

Four Worley constants are used to calculate the distances between each cell in the texture, based on the distance metric. Adjusting these values can have some interesting effects on the end result. Check the Samples Gallery for some examples of these settings and what textures they produce.

Four different noise basis types can be used as methods to calculate colour and intensity of the texture output. This gives the Voronoi textures created with the Worley Sliders a completely different appearance. The noise basis settings are equivalent to the noise basis setting found on the other textures.

blender wood

blender wood texture

use

This texture is particularly suited for wood materials.

parameters
  • bands: the standard wood texture
  • rings: this suggests wood rings
  • bandnoise: gives the standard wood texture a certain degree of turbulence
  • ringnoise: gives the rings type a certain degree of turbulence
  • soft noise/hard noise: two noise methods
  • noisesize: the dimension of the noise table
  • turbulence: the turbulence of the bandnoise and ringnoise types

bilerp

bilerp texture using uv and spherical mapping

The bilerp texture takes four colours as input and interpolates the colours in between. It can use uv, planar, cylindrical and spherical mapping.

checkerboard

2d and 3d checkerboard texture

This texture generates a two- or three-dimensional checkerboard pattern.

parameters
  • 2d/3d: switches between the two- and threedimensional patterns
  • closedform/supersample: anti aliasing algorithms for the 2d pattern
  • uv: base the pattern on the object's uv texture mapping
  • cylindrical: use a cylindrical projection (2d pattern)
  • spherical: use a spherical projection (2d pattern)
  • planar: use a planar projection (2d pattern)
  • Ud/Vd: offset values for the planar projection

dots

dots texture

This texture creates a grid of dots, each of which has a 50% chance of being displayed.

parameters
  • uv: base the pattern on the object's uv texture mapping
  • cylindrical: use a cylindrical projection
  • spherical: use a spherical projection
  • planar: use a planar projection
  • ud/vd: offset values for the planar projection

FBm

fbm texture

The FBm (fractal Brownian motion) texture generates fractal noise, which is very suitable for use as a bump map.

parameters
  • roughness: the noise roughness - low values generate smooth shapes, higher values add detail
  • octaves: the range of noise frequencies - higher values create more detailed patterns

harlequin

harlequin texture

This texture assigns a colour to each face, which can be useful for checking mesh subdivisions.

marble

marble texture

The marble texture generates a marble pattern by distorting a layer pattern.

parameters
  • octaves: the range of noise frequencies
  • roughness: the amount of noise
  • noisescale: the scale of the noise
  • variation: additional variation in the pattern by offsetting through the marble layers

mix

mix texture, mixing a checkerboard with a solid red colour

The mix texture mixes textures by taking the average of their colour values. The proportion between the two source textures can be defined by the user.

scale

scale texture, scaling a checkerboard with a solid red colour

The scale texture mixes textures by multiplying their colour values, where black is zero and white is one.

uv

uv texture

The uv procedural texture is intended to clearly display uv mapping. A red gradient is used for the u direction, while a green gradient indicates the v direction.

windy

windy waves texture

The windy (or windy waves) texture is intended as a bump map or displacement map for waves. It is based on the FBm material and does not have any adjustable parameters.

wrinkled

wrinkled texture

The wrinkled texture generates turbulence noise, which is very suitable for use as a bump map.

parameters
  • roughness: the noise roughness - low values generate smooth shapes, higher values add detail
  • octaves: the range of noise frequencies - higher values create more detailed patterns

noise types

Each noise-based Blender texture (with the exception of Voronoi and simple noise) has a noise basis setting that defines which algorithm is used to generate the texture. The Noise Basis settings makes the procedural textures (and especially Musgrave) extremely flexible.

The noise basis governs the structural appearance of the texture.